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- 9 лет назад
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Anthropological studies of space and place recognize that landscape, space and the body represent important sites for cultural meaning. Writing from the perspective of an urban sociologist, I am particularly attuned to the relevance of place to social life. Everything happens. Lefebvre, and later also Soja (), argue that space is understood as physical and social landscape which is imbued with meaning in everyday place-bound. VICTORIA JOHNSTON BETTER PLACED HRMIS
Inquiries into how cultural phenomena as representations of multiple and often quite contradictory meanings have been complemented by studies of agency and embodiment. Coping with mobility and displacement, studies now consider migration, place-making, and identity construction. Notions of hegemony, surveillance, and the actions of the state interpenetrate local ethnographic sites that now must consider context in more complex ways than simply adapting to the physical environment.
This review is organized to reflect early syntheses according to themes on social and symbolic dimensions, psychologies, and the social production of larger urban space, but it defers to those review works to provide details. This review focuses more on new areas of research that have emerged where a concentrated emphasis on space and place concepts can be found—the literature on place-making and design; on indigenous knowledge and development; indigenous rights and land claims; and food.
By no means is this review comprehensive, but it does sketch the outlines of some of the developments in new areas of research that take space and place concept seriously. This overview draws substantially from previous writings co-written with Setha Low.
Whether it concerns the materiality of the built environment or the mobility of bodies across space or disrupting traditional borders and polities, space and place concepts pose challenges to theorizing in completely coherent ways. Rather, anthropologists inspired by different disciplinary trends have offered different perspectives.
Lawrence and Low reviews the historical development of spatial consciousness among anthropologists, and the ethnographic problematization of built forms and spatial orientation. They identify social organization and symbolic analyses, as well as psychological and social production theories.
Two anthologies addressing more specific themes introduce new considerations. Gupta and Ferguson offers papers that critically examine the postcolonial condition of globalization where locals and immigrants remake themselves in new places, engage in resistance or rework local sociopolitical systems. Low , an anthology on the city, presents diverse works by scholars on urban segregation by race and class, the role of fear and hegemonic forces in organizing the city, and disrupting effects of global, modern, and postmodern urban influences.
Ingold argues that one cannot understand space, or place, without moving through it. His emphasis on practice moves the field toward a more sensory view of space. A contrasting view is offered in Dawson, et al. Finally, Haenn, and Wilk provides an anthology of articles covering environmental anthropology from earliest theoretical foundations in cultural ecology to the most recent developments in indigenous initiatives, environmental management, and consumption.
Coleman, Simon, and Peter Collins, eds. Locating the field: Space, place and context in anthropology. Oxford: Berg. While place is an important element in ethnography, it is not the primary dimension of ethnographic practice. Negotiating territoriality: Spatial dialogues between state and tradition. New York: Routledge. Authors examine a territorial concept of space emphasizing the social construction of land tenure, control, and identity.
The book includes case studies exploring the contrast between tradition and modernity by considering European, settler and mestizo, and post-colonial societies. Different types of territorial appropriations collide with governments based on ownership regimes that inscribe space with contrasting notions of legitimacy.
Gupta, Akhil, and James Ferguson, eds. Culture, power, place: Explorations in critical anthropology. Durham, NC: Duke. Critical anthropological studies focused on the effects of postcolonial globalization on countries and their populations that increasingly migrate to new locations. The ethnographic studies challenge and explore the unquestioned assumptions relating place making, identity, and resistance and find that local communities, subjected to political process of the dominant society, rework and transform local cultural forms.
Haenn, Nora, and Richard Wilk, eds. The environment in anthropology: A reader in ecology, culture and sustainable living. He defines space as land, territory, area, or Reich. On the basis of previously marked areas, power-political and strategic arguments are derived. The National Socialists used such argumentation to justify their policy of expansion. Karl Haushofer is regarded as the central representative of German geopolitics; he became Hitler's advisor and conceptual trailblazer after the seizure of power.
In his book Mein Kampf, Hitler, too, emphasizes that only a sufficiently large space can make a life in freedom possible for the Germans. In Anglo-American literature, space is the subject of discussion above all in geography. References Google Scholar Bachelard, Gaston. The poetics of Space. Translated by Maria Jolas. Boston: Beacon Press, Paris: Presses universitaires de France, Published in German as Poetik des Raumes. Translated by Kurt Leonhard. Munich: Fischer, The Social Construction of Reality.
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