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Step 5 – Appealing the Decision of the University Academic The MSW Program is in the Department of Social Work which is part of the. With support from the NYC. Department for the Aging, the NYS Office of. Victim Services, and private sources, SHOPP's VIP. Program provides. Compare the roles of the ED staff nurse, ED case manager, and ED clinical social worker. 4. Describe why EDs increasingly involve RNs as case managers. 5. KNICKS VS CAVALIERS
This repetition is combined with other assertiveness skills that involve listening to the patient and agreeing with his position whenever possible. Whether or not the request can be granted, all patients need to be asked what their request is. This rapid connection based on free information allows the clinician to respond empathically and express a desire to help the patient get what he wants, facilitating rapid de-escalation of agitation. A sad person wants something he has given up hope of having.
A patient who is fearful wants to avoid being hurt. In a later discussion of aggression, it will be apparent that the aggressive patient has specific wants also, and identifying these wants is important for the management of the patient. Domain VI: Listen Closely to What the Patient Is Saying Key Recommendation: Use Active Listening The clinician must convey through verbal acknowledgment, conversation, and body language that he is really paying attention to the patient and what he is saying and feeling.
As the listener, you should be able to repeat back to the patient what he has said to his satisfaction. Again, this does not mean necessarily that you agree with the patient but, rather, that you understand what he is saying.
If you are truly trying to imagine how it could be true, you will be less judgmental, and the patient will sense that you are interested in what he is saying and this will significantly improve your relationship with the patient. For example, if the patient's agitation is driven by the delusion that someone is following him and intends to cause him harm, you can imagine how this is true from the patient's standpoint and engage the patient in conversation as to why this is happening to him and who would want to harm him.
This will convey your interest and will result in the patient engaging in conversation about that which is driving his agitation. By engaging in conversation, the patient will begin to see that you care, which in turn, fosters de-escalation.
Domain VII: Agree or Agree to Disagree Fogging is an empathic behavior in which one finds something about the patient's position with which he can agree. There are 3 ways to agree with a patient. The first is agreeing with the truth.
Do you mind if I try? Clinicians may find themselves in a position where they are being asked to agree with an obvious delusion or something else the clinician can obviously have no knowledge of. In this situation, acknowledge that you have never experienced what the patient is experiencing but that you believe that he is having that experience. However, if there is no way to honestly agree with the patient, agree to disagree. It is critical that the patient be clearly informed about acceptable behaviors.
Tell the patient that injury to him or others is unacceptable. If necessary, tell the patient that he may be arrested and prosecuted if he assaults anyone. This should be communicated in a matter-of-fact way and not as a threat. If the patient is causing the clinician to feel uncomfortable, this must be acknowledged. Often telling the patient that his behavior is frightening or provocative is helpful if it is matched with an empathic statement that the desire to help can be interrupted or even derailed if the clinician feels angry, fearful, etc.
Being treated with respect and dignity must go both ways. Violation of a limit must result in a consequence, which 1 is clearly related to the specific behavior; 2 is reasonable; and 3 is presented in a respectful manner. Some behaviors, eg, punching a wall or even breaking a chair, may not automatically indicate the need for seclusion or restraint, and the patient can continue to be de-escalated with some increase in limit setting and consequences.
Reassure the patient that you want to help him regain control and establish acceptable behavior. Key Recommendation: Coach the Patient in How to Stay in Control Once you have established a relationship with the patient and determined that he has the capability to stay in control, teach him how to stay in control. I bet you could help me understand if you were to calmly tell me your concerns. Choice is the only source of empowerment for a patient who believes physical violence is a necessary response.
In order to stop a spiraling aggression from turning into an assault, be assertive and quickly propose alternatives to violence. While offering choices, also offer things that will be perceived as acts of kindness, such as blankets, magazines, and access to a phone. Food and something to drink may be a choice the patient is willing to accept that will stall aggressive behaviors.
Be mindful that these choices must be realistic. Never deceive a patient by promising something that cannot be provided for him. For example, a patient should not be promised a chance to smoke when the hospital has a no-smoking policy. Key Recommendation: Broach the Subject of Medications The goal of medicating the agitated patient is not to sedate but to calm him. As Allen and colleagues 11 point out, a calm, conscious patient is one who can participate in his own care and work with the crisis clinician toward an appropriate treatment disposition, which is of benefit to the patient and also to the staff.
It can decrease length of stay and make the emergency department experience a positive one. When medications are indicated, offer choices to the patient. Timing is essential. Do not rush to give medication but, at the same time, do not delay medication when needed. Using increasing strategies of persuasion is a sound technique Table 3. For example, the first step is not to mention medication at all but to ask the patient what he needs, what works.
Try to get the request for medication to come from the patient himself, or perhaps the patient has a better idea. Table 3. Open in a separate window If the patient does not mention medication and the clinician believes it is indicated, then state clearly to the patient that you think he would benefit from medication. May I offer you some medication? How can that be accomplished? Would you be willing to take some medication?
I'm going to order you some emergency medicine. Giving the patient a choice in either oral or parenteral administration can help give the patient some control. He may willingly take medication if the means of administration is a choice, even if the administration of medication itself is not a choice. If you agree to take a pill by mouth you can avoid taking a shot. Finally, when verbal attempts to de-escalate fail, more coercive measures such as restraints or injectable medication may be necessary to ensure safety but always as a last resort.
Let patients know that things are going to improve and that they will be safe and regain control. Give realistic time frames for solving a problem and agree to help the patient work on the problem. Start by explaining why the intervention was necessary. Let the patient explain events from his perspective. Explore alternatives for managing aggression if the patient were to get agitated again.
Teach the patient how to request a time out and how to appropriately express his anger. Explain how medications can help prevent acts of violence and get the patient's feedback on whether his concerns have been addressed. Finally, debrief the patient's family who witnessed the incident. Once the patient is calm, the clinician can acknowledge and work with the patient on a deeper level, help put the patient's concerns into perspective, and assist him in problem solving his initial precipitating situation.
Staff should feel free to suggest both what went well during the episode, and what did not, and recommend improvements for the next episode. Moyer 29 has defined several types of aggression, some of which are commonly seen in the emergency setting.
Types of aggression also have been identified in the setting of a correctional facility 30 and by martial arts instructors. Some of the management techniques used in correctional facilities and taught in the martial arts are not recommended for use in the healthcare setting.
However, the principles allow us to develop techniques appropriate to the healthcare setting and are discussed here. It will be apparent that there is always something the patient wants. As discussed earlier, identifying the patient's wants is important and, in this case, determines how the patient is managed. Instrumental aggression is used by those who have found they can get what they want by violence or threats of violence.
This aggression is not driven by emotion and can be handled by using unspecified counter offers to the aggressor's threat. The patient wants to avoid being hurt and may attack to prevent someone from hurting him. Give the fearful patient plenty of space. Do not have a show of force or in any other way intimidate the patient or make him feel threatened, as this will feed into the patient's belief that he is going to be hurt.
De-escalation involves matching the patent's pace until he begins to focus on what is being said rather than his fear. Don't hurt me. You're safe here. Irritable aggression comes in 2 forms. The first is the patient who has had boundaries violated. Someone has cheated him, humiliated him, or otherwise emotionally wounded him.
He is angry and trying to put his world back together, ie, he is trying to regain his self-worth and integrity. This patient wants to be heard and have his feelings validated. This type of aggression is identified by the patient's telling you what has made him angry. De-escalation involves setting conditions for the patient to be heard.
Fogging and the broken record approach19 are most helpful. A typical scenario is the patient who found out that his girlfriend had cheated on him. His friends kidded him and a fight ensued. He was brought in by police. On arrival the patient is furious. He states that his girlfriend had cheated on him and that the police are treating him unfairly.
The initial response is to agree in principle that the patient's anger is justified. The response is that he may be right but you would like to try to understand. This loop may need repeated a dozen or more times before the patient complies. They want to release the constant pressure resulting from their world view.
They make unrealistic and erratic demands and use these as an excuse to attack when their demands are not met. They get enjoyment out of creating fear and confusion and may make feigned attacks to intimidate those who are working with them.
Do not react in a startled or defensive way. These patients are looking for an emotional response from anyone who is an audience. Don't give them one and remove all other patients, unnecessary staff members, and bystanders from the area. Use emotionless responses. De-escalation involves giving the patient choices other than violence to get what he wants.
As he makes erratic demands, use the broken record to return to the options you can offer. Let him know you will work with him but only when he is willing to be cooperative. Set firm limits to protect staff and other patients and intervene with restraint if the limit is violated. Unfortunately, many of these patients will test the limit by doing just what you have asked them not to do and end up in restraints.
SUMMARY Verbal de-escalation techniques have the potential to decrease agitation and reduce the potential for associated violence, in the emergency setting. The type of research that policy analysts do depends on where they work. The mission of think tanks and associations sets the agenda for analysts who work there. For those working in government, research topics depend on the needs of the government agency. Larger think tanks may also hire policy analysts to specialize in a particular area, but they might have generalists on staff who research multiple areas.
Policy analysts often take the initiative when deciding what to work on. They might come up with topics on their own, or they might meet in groups to generate proposals. Policy analysts must be able to do independent research, which requires reading and digesting complex information.
They communicate effectively through speaking and writing. They must work well in groups but also be self-starters able to work alone on a project. And they need patience to study one subject for a long time. In addition to these skills and traits, policy analysts need specific types of education and experience to start their careers.
Most, but not all, policy analysts have a graduate degree. Some people begin working as policy analysts immediately after graduate school. But because most employers seek analysts who are already experts on specific topics or in public policy in general, even entry-level analysts usually have some work experience. Each year, public and private foundations award billions of dollars in grants, sums of money that are intended to advance a specific objective.
Grant writers help to match funders with projects they want to support. To find available funding, grant writers identify grants that match the objective of the organization or individual seeking money. They often scour detailed lists, databases, and donor websites. Part of researching grants is determining which ones are not worth pursuing. Grant proposals often require a variety of documents, such as a cover letter, project narrative, and supporting information, which might include things like letters of endorsement from members of the community.
Through these documents, grant writers explain why a cause is important and how the funds will be used. Ideally, the writing tells a story. For example, grant writers might describe the past, present, and planned activities of the grant-seeking individual or organization. Incorporating all of these elements into a successful proposal takes time and expertise—especially when there are hundreds, sometimes thousands, of organizations competing for the same funds.
Your writing needs to convince funders that your organization is profoundly worthy of their trust and support. Some grant writers have other roles within their organization. Grant writing offers opportunities to earn a paycheck while helping a cause. Research and writing skills are essential for grant writers. Research helps writers find grant opportunities.
Good writing expresses ideas clearly and succinctly, with creativity and persuasiveness helping a proposal stand out. School counselors should spend most of their time in direct service to and contact with students. Counselors may help students with issues such as bullying, disabilities, low self-esteem, poor academic performance and relationship troubles. Students can be referred to a psychologist or mental health counselor for further treatment if necessary. They facilitate aptitude tests and formulate potential paths to success.
Earning a four-year undergraduate degree is the first step toward becoming a school counselor. These degrees offers a combination of learning and hands-on experience in classroom settings. Some states also require a teaching certificate. Social workers have a unique skill set that is in demand in many parts of the world, and some may feel their skills could be better applied in an international setting.
While jobs in domestic and international social work can be similar, the lifestyle and cultural challenges are different. Expats in any job must reconcile their own cultural upbringing and beliefs with those of their host country. However, for international social workers this can be a more intense process, since they could be working with disadvantaged populations with different standards of living than U.
Paid international humanitarian jobs are highly competitive. The majority of the grassroots humanitarian organizations in Asia, Africa, and South America are run on the commitment of their members; they do not have money to host volunteers or pay expatriates. The niche for expatriates is with the international NGOs non-government organizations.
If you thought the competition was fierce when you applied for a job in your town, global competition is fiercer, because there are far more people applying for only a few positions. Just know it takes a lot to get your foot in the door. What does it take to get paid international social work?
You need: domestic social work experience; international experience; knowledge of the culture that you will work in; attitudes of humility, resourcefulness, determination, tenacity for the search itself; language skills are very helpful. Volunteering is a great way to get international experience. International volunteering that gives you pertinent experience is a great way to build your foundation for international work. You usually need posts of volunteer work to get the foundation of experience.
International experience is not just window dressing; it is essential. International work is complex. You must know that culture. So get volunteer experience that is pertinent to your long-term goal. Study the cultures and countries that interest you. Ascertain their needs. This will help not only when you are in-country but when you approach people about paid or voluntary work.
Assistant directors are often the people who take a first look at any issues or requests intended for the executive. They assist the executives by performing high-level clerical duties such as taking messages, writing and proofreading letters and memoranda, and handing communications. If the organization is smaller, the assistant director may be responsible for managing its finances, keeping its books and handling payroll operations.
Given the many different kinds of nonprofit organizations, it is often the case that no two employers have precisely the same requirements for assistant director applicants. Most also desire experience working with nonprofit organizations, preferably in a management role. With the large number of responsibilities that assistant directors have, applicants for the position must be hardworking, have multitasking abilities, and have strong communication skills for engaging with clients as well as employees and upper management.
Being an assistant director means that you should be willing to do whatever is needed to make sure everything gets done. For example, there can be a need to take on training and supervising of volunteers as well as hands-on work. To succeed in non-profit work, you need a variety of skills. Courtesy and patience with people from unfamiliar backgrounds, a willingness to work hard for moderate pay, and in general, flexibility, adaptability and a sense of humor are all very valuable.
Some practical skills that would help: the ability to work all sorts of equipment and computers and some experience in bookkeeping and grant writing. Knowing how to network will also come in handy. Medical social workers are responsible for offering the support and resources that patients need in order to fully recover from a medical illness or injury as well as the resulting emotional, physical, or psychological concerns.
Medical social workers arrange all available resources to ensure patients recover and achieve optimal well-being. In serious cases of child abuse or violence, medical social workers may also be responsible for providing psycho-social support, grief counseling, and assisting law enforcement in their investigations. It is important that individuals possess strong interpersonal skills to foster productive relationships with diverse patients and their families.
Most importantly, medical social workers need to be emotionally stable and compassionate to demonstrate empathy towards patients in stressful health situations. For example, in the ACLU, having joined the NAACP in the legal battle for equal education, celebrated a major victory when the Supreme Court declared that racially segregated schools were in violation of the 14th Amendment.
The advancement of civil rights and social justice over the past century represents one of the most significant developments in American history, and the ACLU has been integral to this process. The stated mission of the ACLU is to defend and preserve individual rights and liberties that are upheld in the Constitution and by the laws of the United States, and its primary tools for doing so include litigation, legislation, and community education.
The ACLU also remains a champion of segments of the population who have traditionally been denied their rights, with much of our work today focused on equality for people of color, women, gay and transgender people, prisoners, immigrants, and people with disabilities. If you are interested in becoming an ACLU lawyer, you will find that your course will originally be very similar to that of anyone who wants to be a lawyer. After getting an undergraduate degree, ideally in something like pre-law, political science, or history, you will need to take the LSAT, the Law School Admissions Test.
After law school comes the bar exam, which needs to be taken in the state in which you intend to practice. The ACLU is committed to fight for freedom and the protection of constitutional rights for generations to come. They do not just sit in their armchairs and spin grand schemes; they go out in the world, observe, talk with people, and systematically analyze existing data to try to understand what is going on and why.
A research assistant is a researcher employed, often on a temporary contract by a university or a research institute, for the purpose of assisting in academic research. Research assistants are not independent and not directly responsible for the outcome of the research and might be enrolled in a postgraduate degree program and simultaneously teach. Although a research assistant is normally appointed at graduate level, undergraduates are also sometimes appointed to support research.
Some of the roles assigned to social science research assistants include preparing, manipulating, and managing extensive databases. They might also provide assistance with the preparation of project-related reports, manuscripts, and presentations.
In addition, they verify the accuracy and validity of data entered in databases, correcting any errors. On a weekly to monthly basis, they seek to gain informed consent of research subjects and perform statistical analyses of data, using computer software. Left to our own devices, we tend to overlook cases that run counter to our expectations.
Often there is an emotional stake in our beliefs about the world that causes us to resist evidence that challenges those beliefs. Research seeks to overcome these pitfalls of everyday inquiry. Although some people complain that research is simply an expensive way of finding out what everyone already knew, the results sometimes contradict commonsense expectations.
In fact, many individuals might have a negative connotation when they hear the term social worker. They sometimes assume these individuals are only called in when someone has done something wrong. In fact, the hospice social worker is available to assist the patient and family on any number of practical or emotional issues. They can help patients fill out advance directives, help families determine funeral arrangements, offer education about caregiving, connect patients and families to community resources, as well as assess the emotional needs of patients or caregivers.
Dying is not an easy task, but hospice workers strive to help patients and loved ones through the process. Hospice social workers focus on the individual needs of each patient and his or her family. The work they do varies in each setting, with each patient and within each family.
They also have great knowledge and expertise in caregiving. Caregiving can bring out the best and worst in people. But, after the initial shock and disbelief settle, most caregivers find the strength within to get through physical and emotional challenges that come with caring for a loved one, and do so with grace and humor. Military social workers receive specialized training that allows them to serve the needs of military clients. Clinical social workers who work in a military setting must be prepared to address the mental, physical and emotional needs of military personnel.
Job duties include providing direct services, such as counseling, crisis intervention and debriefing after critical events. Military social workers also plan and implement disease prevention and health promotion programs for service members, conduct research on social issues and assist in the training of medical personnel.
The U. Army, Navy, Air Force and Marines use the services of both military and civilian social workers to provide social services and crisis intervention support. Social workers who work on base, in the field and in military hospitals help wounded personnel adjust to injury and reintegrate into military or civilian life.
In addition to working with service members, military social workers provide general support for the family of active-duty service members. In the U. Similar positions can be found in other military branches. Their clients are people coping with physical disabilities and injuries, mental illness, psychological disorders or substance abuse problems. Since the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act, many disabled people have pushed for greater accommodation in employment.
Living with a disability is often very challenging and socially isolating. Employment helps to boost the self-esteem of those with physical and mental impairments, and helps them to play a greater role in their own care. Vocational rehabilitation counselors help their clients achieve their goals and thrive by arranging for the training, therapy, job skills, and support systems that lead to success.
Good communication and problem-solving skills are required in order to work in counseling jobs, as well as empathy and the desire to help people fulfill their goals. Counselors must also have good listening skills, compassion, and patience while working with clients. Strong familiarity with the social welfare systems available to disabled persons is essential as well. Greater education provides greater flexibility and independence. Administrative and academic positions generally pay better and offer greater benefits than direct work with clients, though experienced professionals may open up a private practice and earn a higher income as a result.
School social workers help parents, students, and school staff identify needs that interfere with learning and work with students to get the services they need. Social workers work with general and special education students and their families to resolve social, emotional and behavioral problems. They do this through assessment, consultation with school staff and community providers, through development and implementation of behavior management plans, and providing indirect and direct services.
School Social Workers help to bridge school, home and community to help students be as successful as possible. School social workers meet one-on-one with individual students to work on any problems students may be having including peer relationships, behavior problems, problems in the community, at home or in school. Social workers help students to develop social skills, coping strategies and to find positive solutions to their problems.
Clinical counselors do indeed talk people through problems. In many cases, though, they diagnose as well as treat mental illness. Some mental health counselors help people who have normal cognitive processes cope with difficult life events, for example, physical illness, death of loved ones, and relationship problems or divorce. Others help people manage serious mental illnesses like bipolar disorder. Counselors need to know when to refer clients or patients for additional resources and how to identify when abuse may be happening or when there is a risk of suicide or other violence.
Cognitive therapy is among the most common techniques, but some employ other therapies. Some clinical counselors specialize and work with a particular population, for example, the elderly. Mental health counselors may work for a variety of agencies: individual and family services, hospitals, and inpatient and outpatient mental health facilities. Some are in private practice. Clinical counselors often work as part of a health care team; the team could include doctors, nurse specialists, psychologists, and even social workers.
Curriculum requirements vary from one jurisdiction to the next. Many states require that the degree program either be accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs or be substantively equivalent. Mental health counselors have a broad knowledge base. They must know how to apply research to clinical counseling. While it is never within their scope of duty to prescribe medication, clinical counselors are expected to have knowledge of common psychoactive medications, including contraindications and side effects.
All states license the mental health counseling profession. Some states group mental health counselors with other professional counselors for example, those in rehabilitation. Others have multiple licensing levels for counselors and recognize the unique qualifications that clinical counselors possess.
It can be a good idea to pursue the highest level of licensing. Licensing level can be important for reimbursement purposes and can therefore increase employment options. Earning your Master of Social Work, however, is only half the battle. Pursuing post-graduate licensing is an essential step toward enhancing your career options. Advanced generalist and clinical licenses require two years of post-MSW experience. In the case of clinical licensure, this experience must be in direct clinical social work.
With a BSW you have not only the necessary foundational skillset and baseline knowledge to quickly move into a deeper exploration of social work. For others, the Master of Social Work degree period represents time that can be spent gearing up for an entirely different career track such as working in Child Welfare or Social Work Administration.
These particular specializations are a good example of how an MSW, while required to gain licensure as a LCSW, does not necessarily equate one-to-one with being on the road towards licensure. Marriage and family therapists treat a wide range of serious clinical problems including: depression, marital problems, anxiety, individual psychological problems, and child-parent problems.
Typically, earning an undergraduate degree in counseling, psychology, sociology or social work is the first step in becoming a marriage and family therapist. Most states require that marriage and family therapists complete two years of post-graduate supervised work, totaling between 2, and 4, hours of clinical experience. As a marriage and family therapist, you can work in social service agencies, family services, outpatient mental health and substance abuse centers, hospitals, government, schools and even your own private practice.
You can choose to work with a specific population, such as with teenagers, the incarcerated, families and the elderly. Research studies repeatedly demonstrate the effectiveness of marriage and family therapy in treating the full range of mental and emotional disorders and health problems. Studies also show that clients are highly satisfied with services of Marriage and Family Therapists. Clients report marked improvement in work productivity, co-worker relationships, family relationships, partner relationships, emotional health, overall health, social life, and community involvement.
An office manager is someone who is responsible for organizing all of the administrative activities that facilitate the smooth running of an office. They must be skilled at supervising other employees in a fair, consistent manner. Duties for office managers vary according to the size of the employing organization, so it could mean organizing, planning and overseeing a large pool of administrative assistants, or working with one or two people in a smaller office.
Regardless of the size of the organization, an office manager must be able to motivate and encourage employees to increase both productivity and work quality. Nonprofit agencies have a tax-exempt status with the government because they do not gain profits from efforts.
Still, administrative assistants for nonprofit organizations complete the same kind of duties as those who work with for-profit companies. A sampling of the skills and requirements needed include: good communication skills; attention to detail; leadership skills; and analytical skills. Responsibilities typically include: organizing meetings and arranging appointments; typing, and dealing with correspondence, complaints and queries; preparing letters, presentations and reports; supervising and monitoring the work of secretarial, clerical and administrative staff; managing office budgets; and implementing and maintaining procedures and office administrative systems.
As the population ages there will be an ongoing need for geriatric social workers whose focus is in working with adults aged sixty-five and up. The world is in the midst of an unprecedented degree of population aging. In nearly every developed country around the world, more and more people are living well into their golden years.
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